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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders

(a) The following definitions shall apply in the application of these Orders.

Access. A means of reaching a workspace or a work area.

Accessible. Within reach from a workspace or work area.

Adequate Ventilation. Ventilation which, under normal operating conditions, is sufficient to keep the concentration of a hazardous gas, vapor, mist, fume or dust below the amount which will produce harmful effects or below 20 percent of the lower explosive limit, whichever is lower.

Anchorage. A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices.

Body Belt. A simple or compound strap with means for securing it about the waist and for securing a lanyard to it.

Body Harness. Straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

Buckle. Any device for holding the body belt or body harness closed around the employees body.

Bulldozer. A tractor having a blade in front for moving earth or other materials.

Bull Float. A tool used to spread out and smooth a concrete surface.

Carryall. A self-loading and unloading vehicle pulled by a tractor or powered attachment, and used for movement and placing of earth or other materials.

Certified Safety Professional or CSP. A safety professional who has met education and experience standards, has demonstrated by examination the knowledge that applies to professional safety practice, continues to meet recertification requirements established by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP), and is authorized by BCSP to use the Certified Safety Professional designation.

Closed Container. A container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.

Combustible Liquid. A liquid having a flash point greater than 199.4

C) (formerly designated Class IIIB Combustible liquids).

Competent Person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Connector. A device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or dee-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).

Contaminant. A harmful, irritating or nuisance material that is foreign to the environment.

NOTE: For definition of harmful exposure refer to section 5140 of General Industry Safety Orders.

Controlled Access Zone (CAZ). An area in which certain work may take place without the use of guardrails, personal fall arrest systems, or safety nets and access to the zone is controlled.

Coon. To straddle and move horizontally on a beam while walking on the bottom flanges.

Crawling Board (Chicken Ladder). A plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals and used by workers on roofs as a means of access.

Dangerous Equipment. Equipment (such as pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, machinery, electrical equipment, and other construction related equipment such as hoppers and conveyors) which, as a result of form or function, may be hazardous to employees who fall onto or into such equipment.

Deceleration Device. Any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

Deceleration Distance. The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employees body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

Defect. Any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength or the safety of the tool, machine, object, or structure of which it is a part.

Division. The current Division of Occupational Safety and Health or any of its predecessors including the former Division of Industrial Safety or the Division of Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Reference to the former Division of Industrial Safety or Division of Occupational Safety and Health Administration in these Orders is meant to refer to their successor, the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, or any subsequent successor agency.

Drop Line (Safety Line). A vertical line from a fixed anchorage, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard is affixed.

Elevator, Construction. Any means used to hoist persons or material of any kind on a building under course of construction, when operated within guides, by any power other than muscular power.

(A) Appropriately Trained Person. A physician or registered nurse currently licensed in California or a person possessing a current certificate (training within the past three years or as specifically stated on the certificate) from the American National Red Cross or equivalent training that can be likewise verified. Acceptable Red Cross certificates are those from the Standard First-Aid Multimedia, Standard First Aid and Personal Safety, or Advanced First Aid and Emergency Care courses.

NOTE: Equivalent training includes, but is not limited to, training which is equivalent to that provided by the American National Red Cross, or training required for certification as mobile intensive care paramedics as provided under chapter 2.5, article 3, sections 1480 through 1484.4 of the California Health and Safety Code; and, courses that are given by nationally recognized voluntary health organizations, official agencies, such as Mine Safety and Health Administration, or accredited teaching institutions.

(B) Emergency Medical Services. The communications, transportation and medical and related services, such as first aid, rendered in response to the individual need for immediate medical care in order to reduce or prevent suffering and disability and reduce the incidence of death.

(C) First Aid. The recognition of, and prompt care for injury or sudden illness prior to the availability of medical care by licensed health-care personnel.

(A) The State and every State agency.

(B) Each county, city, district, and all public and quasi-public corporations and public agencies therein.

(C) Every person including any public service corporation which has any natural person in service.

(D) The legal representative of any deceased employer.

(A) Bank. A mass of soil rising above a digging level.

(B) Exploration Shaft. A shaft created and used for the purpose of obtaining subsurface data.

(C) Geotechnical Specialist (GTS). A person registered by the State as a Certified Engineering Geologist, or a Registered Civil Engineer trained in soil mechanics, or an engineering geologist or civil engineer with a minimum of 3 years applicable experience working under the direct supervision of either a Certified Engineering Geologist or Registered Civil Engineer.

(D) Hard Compact (as it applies to section 1542). All earth material not classified as running soil.

(E) Lagging. Boards which are joined, side-by-side, lining an excavation.

(F) Running Soil (as it applies to section 1542). Earth material where the angle of repose is approximately zero, as in the case of soil in a nearly liquid state, or dry, unpacked sand which flows freely under slight pressure. Running material also includes loose or disturbed earth that can only be contained with solid sheeting.

(G) Shaft. An excavation under the earths surface in which the depth, is much greater than its cross-sectional dimensions such as those formed to serve as wells, cesspools, certain foundation footings, and under streets, railroads, buildings, etc.

Exhaust Retrofit. An emission control device installed on a vehicle after the vehicles manufacture, including, but not limited to, modified or added sections of exhaust pipe that connects the emission control device to the engine.

Exit. Exit is a continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way, and shall include intervening doors, doorways, corridors, exterior exit balconies, ramps, stairways, smoke-proof enclosures, horizontal exits, exit passageways, exit courts, and yards.

Failure. Load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.

Falsework and Shoring for Concrete Construction. Temporary formwork and vertical shoring, etc., to support concrete and placing operations for supported slabs of concrete structures.

Fire Area. An area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour.

(A) Portable fire extinguishers are classified for use on certain classes of fires and rated for relative extinguishing effectiveness at a temperature of plus 70 degrees Fahrenheit by nationally recognized testing laboratories. This is based upon the classification of fires and the fire-extinguishment potentials as determined by fire tests.

(B) The classification and rating system described in this standard is that used by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and Underwriters Laboratories of Canada and is based on extinguishing pre-planned fires of determined size and description as follows:

1. Class A Rating. Wood and excelsior.

2. Class B Rating. Two-inch depth n-heptane fires in square pans.

3. Class C Rating. No fire test. Agent must be a nonconductor of electricity.

4. Class D Rating. Special tests on specific combustible metal fires.

(A) Class A. Fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics.

(B) Class B. Fires in flammable liquids, gases, and greases.

(C) Class C. Fires which involve energized electrical equipment where the electrical nonconductivity of the extinguishing media is of importance. (When electrical equipment is de-energized, extinguishers for Class A or B fires may be used safely.)

(D) Class D. Fires in combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium.

Flammable Liquid. Any liquid having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100

C) and having a flashpoint at or below 199.4

C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:

(A) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4

C) and having a boiling point at or below 95

(B) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4

C) and having a boiling point above 95

(C) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4

(D) Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140

Flash point of the liquid. The temperature at which it gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used as determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified below.

(A) The flashpoint of liquids having a viscosity less than 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) at 100

C) shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester, ASTM D-56-05, which is incorporated herein by reference, or an equivalent method as defined by Section 5194 Appendix B.

(B) The flashpoints of liquids having a viscosity of 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) or more at 175

C) or higher shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, ASTM D-93-08, which is incorporated herein by reference, or an equivalent method as defined by Section 5194 Appendix B.

Floor Area. The area included within the surrounding exterior walls of a building or portion thereof, exclusive of vent shafts and courts. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

Free Fall. The act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.

Free Fall Distance. The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employees body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.

Grade (Adjacent Ground Elevation). The lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, paving or sidewalk, within the area between the building and the property line, or when the property line is more than 5 feet from the building, between the building and a line 5 feet from the building.

Guy. A line that steadies a mast or structure by pulling against an off-center load.

Handrail. A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support.

Haulage Vehicle, as used in these Orders. A self-propelled vehicle including its trailer, used to transport materials on construction projects. The term haulage vehicle includes trucks, truck and trailer combinations, and all other similar equipment used for haulage.

Hazardous Substance. One which by reason of being explosive, flammable, extremely flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritant, or otherwise harmful is likely to cause injury.

Helicopter. A rotary wing aircraft which depends principally for its support and motion in the air upon the lift generated by one or more power-driven rotors, rotating on substantially vertical axes. It can hover, fly backward and sideways, in addition to forward flight. (The following definitions (A) through (K) apply to helicopter operations only.):

(A) Automatic Release Device. A mechanism for releasing the load without deliberate action by the pilot or crewmen.

(B) Dangerous Materials. Explosives, flammables, oxidizing materials, corrosive liquids, compressed gases, poisons, radioactive materials, or a combination of other materials which could produce dangerous material.

(C) Dust Control. The control of dust by use of water or other materials.

(D) Emergency. Human lifesaving or protective operation.

(E) External Load (Helicopter). A cargo which is not contained wholly within the fuselage of the aircraft.

(F) Ground Crew (Helicopter). Those employees not on board the helicopter who are directly involved with helicopter operations.

(G) Heliport. An area used for regular helicopter landings and takeoffs.

(H) Line Stringing Operation (Helicopter). The placing of any line (power, communication, or other line, including the pulling line) between two or more points by pulling it with an airborne helicopter. This does not include towers, poles, or coiled lines transported as a unit.

(I) Passenger (Helicopter). A person to be transported who is not a member of the helicopter crew.

(J) Practicable. Means capable of being accomplished by reasonably available and workable means.

(K) Sling Load (Helicopter). An external load carried below or partly below the level of the landing gear.

Hole. Any opening in a floor or platform, which is smaller than an opening.

Jacking Operation. The task of lifting a slab (or group of slabs) vertically from one location to another (e.g., from the casting location to a temporary (parked) location, or from a temporary location to another temporary location, or to its final location in the structure), during the construction of a building/structure where the lift-slab process is being used.

Jobsite vehicle. A vehicle which is operated on a jobsite exclusively and is excluded from the provisions of applicable traffic and vehicular codes, and haulage and earthmoving vehicles regulated by the provisions of Article 10 of these Orders.

(A) Ladder. A device other than a ramp or stairway, designed for use in ascending or descending at an angle with the horizontal. A ladder is intended to be stationary while in service and consists of two side pieces called siderails, joined at short intervals by crosspieces called steps, rungs or cleats.

(B) Ladder, Double Cleat. A ladder that is similar to a single cleat ladder, but is wider, with an additional center rail which will allow for two-way traffic for workers in ascending and descending.

(C) Ladder, Extension. A ladder consisting of two or more sections, with guides or brackets so arranged that the ladder may be adjusted to different lengths by sliding and locking the movable section or sections.

(D) Ladder, Extension Trestle. A ladder consisting of an A or trestle ladder with an additional single ladder, which is supported in a vertical position by the A ladder.

(E) Ladder, Fixed. A ladder permanently fastened to a structure.

(F) Ladder, Jacobs ladder. A ladder having rigid rungs suspended between two vertical chain or wire rope stringers, instead of the rigid side rails used on fixed or portable ladders.

(G) Ladder, Job-built. A ladder that is fabricated by employees, typically at the construction site, and is not commercially manufactured.

(H) Ladder, Portable. A ladder, not permanently fixed in place, which may be used at various locations.

(I) Ladder, Single-rail. A portable ladder with rungs, cleats, or steps mounted on a single rail instead of the normal two rails used on most other ladders.

(J) Ladder, Steps. Either rungs, treads, or cleats.

(K) Ladder, Stepladder. A ladder having treads and so constructed as to be self-supporting.

(L) Ladder, Step stool. A self-supporting, collapsible, portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, 32 inches or less in overall size, with flat steps and without a pail shelf, designed to be climbed on the ladder top cap as well as all steps. The rails may continue above the top cap.

(M) Ladder, Trestle or A. A ladder consisting of two special, single ladders hinged together at the top to form equal angles with the surface on which they stand.

Lanyard. A flexible line to secure a wearer of a safety belt or harness to a drop line, lifeline, or fixed anchorage.

Leading Edge. The edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. A leading edge is considered to be an unprotected side and edge during periods when it is not actively and continuously under construction.

Lifeline. A horizontal line (i.e. catenary line) between two fixed anchorages, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard is secured either by tying off or by means of a suitable sliding connection. For the purposes of these orders, lifelines may be vertical as well as horizontal (i.e. when used with a body harness).

Lift-Slab. An operation whereby a concrete slab is lifted into an elevated position by means of jacks located above the slab on columns or other supporting members.

Limited Access Zone. An area alongside a masonry wall which is under construction and which is clearly demarcated to limit access by employees.

Linemens Body Belt. A leather or web (cotton or nylon) belt designed specifically for employees working on poles. It consists of a waist belt, generally cushioned, with a front buckle, two D rings for attaching safety straps and a multiple-looped strap for holding, rings, snaphooks, holsters and other tool holding devices.

Liquid. As applied to flammable and combustible liquids means any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-7.1.

Loading Device. A mobile mechanical-powered machine of the skip loader type used for picking up materials and loading or dumping them into haulage vehicles, bins, or hoppers, excluding boom-type excavators and endless belt or chain conveyors.

Lower Levels. Those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment, structures, or portions thereof.

(A) Douglas Fir or Equivalent. Selected lumber or other suitable material of proper size, having strength at least equal to the specified Douglas fir members.

(B) Selected Lumber. Douglas fir that has been graded under standards as high as those followed by the West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau or by the Western Wood Products Association as suitable for a bending stress of 1,500 psi.

1. Douglas fir graded for scaffold plank use and which has an allowable bending stress of at least 2,200 pounds per square inch (psi). Select structural scaffold plank, as described in Paragraph 171-b of the January 1, 2000 Standard Grading Rules No. 17, published by the West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau and Scaffold No. 2 as described in Paragraph 58.12 of the 1998 Edition of the Western Lumber Grading Rules published by the Western Wood Products Association, satisfy this definition.

2. Southern Pine graded for scaffold plank use that meets the Standard Grading Rules for Southern Pine, effective July 1, 2002, Section 501 for Dense Industrial 72 Scaffold Plank and Section 502 for Dense Industrial 65 Scaffold Plank.

3. Other solid sawn wood planking graded as a scaffold plank that meets the scaffold plank grading rules of an agency approved by the American Lumber Standards Committee for the species of wood used.

(D) Size. Unless otherwise stated, the lumber sizes referred to in these Orders mean nominal sizes and thus include both the rough and dressed members of those nominal sizes.

Mast Tower. A single vertical member on which a cantilevered platform, suitable for carrying material, may be moved up and down.

Material Hoist. A hoist for raising and lowering materials only, with the hoisting of persons being prohibited.

(A) Cage. The load-carrying unit, consisting of a platform and enclosure, and including a top as well as walls.

(B) Cantilevered Hoist Tower. A hoist tower in which the platform, cage, or bucket travels on guide rails that are generally an integral part of the vertical tower member(s) and in a vertical plane, outboard from the tower member.

(C) Equivalent. An alternate design, feature, device, or protective action which provides an equal degree of safety.

(D) Hoistway. A shaft way for the travel of one or more platforms, cages, or buckets. It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the beam at the top of the tower or structure.

(E) Inside Hoists. Hoistways contained entirely within the building being served, which sometimes use the building structure itself for the support of the top beams, guide rails, and appurtenant parts necessary for the proper functioning of the platform.

(F) Load. The total superimposed weight on the hoist platform or bucket.

(G) Platform. The load-carrying unit, including the frame, which directly supports the load.

(H) Rated Load. The maximum load for which the material hoist is designed and built by the manufacturer and which is shown on the equipment nameplate(s).

(I) Rated Speed. The speed at which the platform, cage, or bucket is designed to operate in the up direction with a rated load in or on the load-carrying unit.

(J) Rope. Refers to wire rope only.

(K) Tower. The primary structure which forms the hoistway for the travel of the platform, cage, or bucket, and which provides the support for the top beams, guide rails, and other appurtenant parts necessary for the operation of such units.

Mechanical Equipment. All motor or human propelled wheeled equipment used for roofing work, except wheelbarrows and mopcarts.

Midrail. A rail approximately midway between the top rail and platform, that is secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.

Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). A laboratory which has been recognized by the Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7.

O.D. O.D. means optical density and refers to the light refractive characteristics of a lens.

Opening. An opening in any floor or platform, 12 inches or more in the least horizontal dimension. It includes: stairway floor openings, ladderway floor openings, hatchways and chute floor openings.

Personal Fall Arrest System. A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited.

Personal Fall Restraint System. A system used to prevent an employee from falling. It consists of anchorages, connectors, body belt/harness. It may include, lanyards, lifelines, and rope grabs designed for that purpose.

Personal Fall Protection System. A personal fall protection system includes personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems, fall restraint systems, safety nets and guardrails.

Personal Protective Equipment. Protection where modified by the words head, eye, body, hand, and foot, as required by the Orders in Subchapter 4, means the safeguarding obtained by means of safety devices and safeguards of the proper type for the exposure, and of such design, strength, and quality as to eliminate, preclude, or mitigate the hazard.

Personnel Hoist. A mechanism for use in connection with the construction, alteration, maintenance, or demolition of a building structure, or other work. It is used for hoisting and lowering workers or materials, or both, is equipped with a car that moves on guide members during its vertical movement, and includes its hoistway.

(A) Buffer. A device used on construction elevators designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight.

1. Buffer, Hydraulic. A buffer using fluid as a medium which absorbs and dissipates the kinetic energy of the descending car or counterweight.

2. Buffer Stroke, Hydraulic. The fluid-displacing movement of the buffer plunger or piston, excluding the travel of the buffer-plunger accelerating device.

3. Spring Buffer. A buffer which stores in a spring the kinetic energy of the descending car or counterweight.

4. Spring-Buffer Load Rating. The load required to compress the spring an amount equal to its stroke.

5. Spring-Buffer Stroke. The distance the contact end of the spring can move under a compressive load until all coils are essentially in contact.

1. Hoist Car. The load-carrying unit including its platform, car frame, enclosure, and car door or gate.

2. Car Door or Gate Electric Contact. An electrical device, the function of which is to prevent operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless the car door or gate is in the closed position.

3. Car Enclosure. The top and the walls of the car resting on, and attached to, the car platform.

4. Car Frame (Sling). The supporting frame to which the car platform, upper and lower sets of guide shoes, car safety, and the hoisting ropes or hoisting rope sheaves or other lifting mechanism are attached.

5. Car Platform. The structure which forms the floor of the car and which directly supports the load.

1. Bottom Car Clearance. The clear vertical distance from the pit floor (ground or foundation) to the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except guide shoes or rollers, safety-jaw assemblies, and platform aprons or guards, when the car rests on its fully compressed buffers.

2. Top Car Clearance. The shortest vertical distance between the top of the car crosshead, or between the top of the car where no crosshead is provided, and the nearest part of the overhead structure, or any other obstruction, when the car floor is level with


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